קולוקוויום בביה"ס למדעי המחשב - On Expressiveness and Optimization in Deep Learning
Understanding deep learning calls for addressing three fundamental questions: expressiveness, optimization and generalization. Expressiveness refers to the ability of compactly sized deep neural networks to represent functions capable of solving real-world problems. Optimization concerns the effectiveness of simple gradient-based algorithms in solving non-convex neural network training programs. Generalization treats the phenomenon of deep learning models not overfitting despite having much more parameters than examples to learn from. This talk will describe a series of works aimed at unraveling some of the mysteries behind expressiveness and optimization. I will begin by establishing an equivalence between convolutional and recurrent networks --- the most successful deep learning architectures to date --- and hierarchical tensor decompositions. The equivalence will be used to answer various questions concerning expressiveness, resulting in new theoretically-backed tools for deep network design. I will then turn to discuss a recent line of work analyzing optimization of deep linear neural networks. By studying the trajectories of gradient descent, we will derive the most general guarantee to date for efficient convergence to global minimum of a gradient-based algorithm training a deep network. Moreover, in stark contrast with conventional wisdom, we will see that sometimes, gradient descent can train a deep linear network faster than a classic linear model. In other words, depth can accelerate optimization, even without any gain in expressiveness, and despite introducing non-convexity to a formerly convex problem.
Works covered in this talk were in collaboration with Amnon Shashua, Sanjeev Arora, Elad Hazan, Or Sharir, Yoav Levine, Noah Golowich, Wei Hu, Ronen Tamari and David Yakira.